Mechanical Testing

PSA Metallurgical Services can provide the following testing in-house:

  • Brinel
  • Rockwell A, B, C
  • Vickers Microhardness
  • Knoop Microhardness
  • Tensile Testing

Alloy Identification/Positive Material Identification (PMI)

PSA Metallurgical Services can positively indentify low alloy and high alloy steels to determine if they meet the specification of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section II parts A&B Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Materials, respectively.

Boiler Tube Failure Analysis

PSA Metallurgical Services can assess the condition of boiler tubes that have failed in-service to determine if the mode of failure was the result of:

  • Long- or short-term overheat
  • Mechanical fatigue
  • Corrosion fatigue
  • Stress-assisted corrosion (SAC)
  • Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)
  • Material Selection

Boiler Tube Evaluation for Chemical Cleaning

PSA Metallurgical Services can provide valuable information on the waterside condition of a tube to determine the proper course of action to take to chemically clean a boiler.  The types of testing that are performed to provide this information are:

  • Deposit Weight Density (DWD) measurement per ASTM D 3483 Standard Test Methods for Accumulated Deposition in a Steam Generator Tube, Test Methods A, B or C.
  • X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis to identify the elements present in the waterside deposit.
  • X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis to determine the type of compounds that may be present in the waterside deposit.
  • Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis to map the cross-section of a waterside deposit to determine if the deposit is homogeneous or composed of multiple layers.

Failure Analysis

PSA Metallurgical Services can perform failure analysis on various types of equipment within the pulp and paper, petrochemical, and chemical industries to determine the cause of failure and make recommendations on preventing such failures from reoccurring.  One tool to assist us in our analysis is the SEM, which gives us the ability to scan the topography of a fracture looking for key characteristics that can identify the type of failure.  The types of failure that can be detected using the SEM include corrosion, intergranular corrosion, fatigue, tensile overload and embrittlement.

Field Metallography

PSA Metallurgical can assess the condition of a tube’s microstructure in the boiler to determine if the tube has suffered any thermal degradation that would be cause for replacement.